Governance is the concept of recent exposure to designate the efficiency, quality and good guidance of the intervention of the State. It defines a “new form of government” in the globalization. I have defined some of the Important types of governance which are as below.
Democratic governance beyond the issues of institutions and forms of government. It covers the social coordination mechanisms involved in political action and therefore relies on two assumptions.
On the one hand, governance is not a set of rules or an activity but a process. It refers to the decision making process within all groups in the social, political, economic or private.
Governance aims, secondly, to facilitate participation in the definition of public policies, their implementation by multiple players who have neither the same interests nor the same modes of regulation: States, devolved administrations, enterprises, associations of people.
Democratic governance is conceived as the art of government by articulating the business at different spatial scales, from local to global, regulating relationships within society and coordinating the involvement of multiple actors. It is not only helping to reform states but also to help their companies to rethink their management practices and to define themselves a model for regulating pro-active, best suited to their own challenges.
This approach to democratic governance is a proposal to rebuild the state and its relations with society.
Economic And Financial Governance
- The economic and financial governance is an essential prerequisite for promoting economic growth and reduce poverty.
- The main objectives of economic and financial governance are:
- Promote macroeconomic policies that contribute to sustainable development;
- Implement economic policies are transparent, predictable and credible;
- Promote sound financial management;
- Fight against corruption and money laundering;
- Accelerate regional integration by promoting the harmonization of monetary, trade and investment between states.
The e-governance and e-governance services is a holistic concept that defines and assesses the impact that information technology and communication have on government practices and relations between government and society as a whole. The e-governance not only supports improved access to information and political processes but also an approach called participatory fundamentally change the relationship between government and society.
The concept of e-governance can be understood in a broad sense as a kind of superstructure, which covers the use of electronic technologies in three key areas of public action:
- Relations between government and civil society;
- The functioning of public authorities at all levels of planning;
- The provision of public services.
E-governance has an indirect influence on relations between governments and their citizens, strengthening the participation and involvement of citizens in political choices so that their rights and duties are better understood and respected.
Corporate governance relates to moral principles, values and practices that facilitate the balance between economic and social goals and between individual and common goals. It aims to coordinate the interests of individuals, businesses and society as a governance structure emphasizing the common interest as much as possible.
Corporate governance aims to:
- Provide a regulatory framework and an environment conducive to effective economic activities;
- Ensure that businesses are citizens in human rights, social responsibility and environmental protection;
- Promote adoption of codes of ethics in business in achieving the objectives of enterprises;
- Ensure that corporations treat all their stakeholders (shareholders, employees, suppliers, customers, …) in a fair and transparent;
- Provide for the responsibility of management and directors.
Environmental Governance and Natural Resources
Environmental governance refers to all processes, rules, practices and institutions that contribute to the protection, management, conservation and exploitation of biodiversity, ecosystem and mineral resources in their various modalities in perspective reconciling sustainable development and poverty reduction. It also refers to the mechanisms and institutions, both formal and informal, encompassing the norms and values, behaviors and conditions around which organizing citizens, organizations, social movements and the various interest groups defending their differences and exercise their rights to access and exploit natural resources.
The environmental initiative identifies five objectives (or domains) in environmental governance and natural resources:
- The fight against land degradation, drought and desertification;
- Conservation of wetlands;
- Prevention and control of invasive species;
- The conservation and sustainable use of coastal and marine resources;
- The fight against climate change;
- Conservation and management of natural resources (freshwater, biodiversity, forests and plant resources).
- With these objectives, it is important to add management and ethical use of mineral resources and mining.
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