The network governance and e-governance is an emerging idea, based on the rejection of bureaucratic governance that does not respond to the demands of the knowledge society, the realities of a world more complex and interconnected, the interdisciplinary nature of politics today and the e-Governance (Electronic Governance) tools .
But the network is not just a Web site and the information age services. Certainly understands a broader definition of engagement and deepening of relationship that involves citizens and the government. The difference in meaning between governance and government is also something important in this connection. Governance represents the manner or the process of conducting a society to better achieve their goals and interests, while government is the institution or the apparatus to perform this task. This means that the government is one of many instances of governance.
It is interesting to note that various international organizations emphasize the issue of governance according to their interest and imminent goal. The term most commonly used is “e-governance.”
For example, the World Bank’s interest with governance relates exclusively to the contribution it can make to social and economic development through the process of structural and economic liberalization. So, to that institution, e-governance involves the use of e-Governance (Electronic Governance) channels to change the way citizens and businesses interact with government to enable the involvement of citizens in decision making, broader access to information and strengthening civil society.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) relates the concept of governance to sustainable human development. This program identifies the e-governance as a process of ” creating public value through the use of modern means of e-Governance (Electronic Governance) ” . The public value is a concept defined as ” rooted in the preference of the people ” . Electronic government is justified only if it enhances the ability of government to increase the public value – the result of a high quality of life. Focusing on the possibilities of “governance”, believes that e-governance can “give people a chance to participate effectively in an inclusive political process, which can generate a well-informed public consent, the increasingly broad basis for the legitimization of governments”.
The five guiding principles of the United Nations on the objectives for e-Governance Solutions are:
- Create services that respond to citizens’ choice.
- Making the government and their services more accessible.
- Social inclusion.
- Provide information responsibly.
- Using IT and human resources efficiently and effectively.
The group’s Program for Public Management (PUMA) of OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) focuses on three main components of e-governance and participatory online ” information, consultation and active participation “.
The government of India took the SMART model to establish their views on e-governance. This model relates to the ” application of IT to the operation process of government to governance that would like SMART – Simple English, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent, which can be translated by a simple governance, responsible, based on moral principles, responsive and transparent “. This view helped India to draw other goals and strategic initiatives on e-governance.
Anyway, the government network works with a network mechanism, in which the policy is implemented through consultations, the organizations actually function as co-producers in policy making and implementation process.