Today, we are going to see top 10 Linux system admin tools that we think are essential and that any system administrator working under Linux environment should at least find them useful. As we all know Linux is a distribution where we find sequential orders for absolutely everything. Here, we will see controls that allow us to debug, configure and monitor the system and serve us at the usual necessary interferences.
Quick control and easy direct monitoring present by default on Unix/Linux systems. This command quickly displays the main ongoing processes in condensed form, the state of consumption of the SWAP, RAM, CPU and average load of the load of the machine during 5, 10 and 15 minutes. This is very useful command when trying to quickly establish the charge of a machine, all dynamically.
This is a handy command that allows viewing of the current process. PS captures at Time T when to launch the command. This means that it doesn’t display information dynamically. This tool is to use and can still take many parameters which can refine the research and the information displayed. For example:
To see the current process:
* “E” displays the list of all processes
* “F” allows us to have all the necessary information when viewing
To search for a process and the process through their PID / PPID:
ps -f --ppid [PID_NUM]
To search all processes launched by a specific user:
ps -f -u user_name
Supervision is essential for the proper functioning of an entire system. When it’s necessary to supervise a host only, it’s the tool “Monit” that allow to perform verification tasks and fairly precise alerts. It’s a monitoring tool service on premises but it remains in a local context and fails to perform operation on remote hosts.
Does the server/s have survived the last night? A question that sometimes is legitimate to ask and can be answered very easily via the command “uptime” that return time from which the server is started. The command also displays the average server load of 1, 5 and 15 minutes.
Along with WireShark this is a network sniffer that allows inspecting in detail to analyze what goes in and what goes out of the network cards or form server. It’s often extremely useful during maintenance and troubleshooting of what passes from the server, because it often helps to better understand the causes of a malfunction. This tool is not available by default and can be installed using the following command.
yum install tcpdump
apt-get install tcpdump
Cron whose name is derived from the god of time “Chronos”, is a tool that gives the ability to run scripts automatically, commands or software at a data and time specified in advance, or on a cycle defined in advance. These schedules can be point (a specific day) or regular (for example, every Monday at 7.30 am). This is a very useful tool because it helps regular maintenance procedures that are often tedious or they used to do the work for you when you cannot stand before the machine at a specific date.
This command returns information about processes, memory, input output (I/O) and activity of the CPU in clear and simple form. It’s also very useful when trying to quickly see the state of our machine and its overall load.
This is one of the most used command in Linux, it make it possible to see the manual for each tool on the present system and thus helps to know how to use them. We often find the answers to the features in question which are explained very well in the Man tool. In this tool, we find the explanation of each option and each use of the command. For example, to find installed features on the FTP, type the following command:
man -k ftp
Auditd is a tool that allows implementing some security on the system. It also allows file monitoring establishment to issue an alert if a file is consulted and so find the facts on the different access or monitored files. It’s a pretty interesting tool and rather easy to use for the help it can provide.
Lsof or “list open files” is a command that allow us, as does “Top” with the process to list all open files at the moment of launching the command. This is great help when trying to find the actions of a program. For example, by whom a file is busy when it cannot be accessed.
Earlier, we have seen 7 Best Tools for Network Administration and now we covered top 10 tools for Linux System Admins. If you are using some other tools regularly or frequently along with these tools, then let us know so we can discuss about them here or in the next article.
Expert warns that adequate temperature in the environment of the data centers and better arrangement of furniture in which they are staying, can avoid wasting energy.
Although if the present moment is of tight budgets and little investment, you can convert a common structure of the data center in a green environment without spending a lot.
With a little encouragement and good ideas, business owners can greatly reduce spending on enterprise data storage, from the adoption of sustainable practices.
Examples of simple and inexpensive actions to make greener IT, are checking the specifications of the hardware used, the adequacy of the temperature of the rooms where the machines are allocated and the organization of the furniture in order to allow air circulation between the equipment and the entry of light in the environment.
Overall, executives and technologists do not know exactly the characteristics of their data centers. To maintain maximum security, leave the very low temperatures in the rooms where the devices are installed which adds spending on air cooling account for about 70% of the energy costs of a center storage.
Thus, the apparent small variation of 18 to 25 Degree Celsius in an environment can represent great savings and reduce energy waste.
Another simple change that generates and brings good results is the change in the arrangement of furniture in data centers staying. Companies need to adjust the arrangement of these rooms so that air circulates between the equipment – preventing overheating of the same – and daylight between the environment – without the hardware is exposed to direct sunlight.
The Global Load Balancer service is a powerful solution that allows you to improve business continuity and enhance the user experience by enabling the transparently fail-over and balance the load across multiple geographically distributed Datacenters.
The functionality: Global Load Balancing Service extend the functionality of the classical load balancing scale without using the typical DNS proxy of the classic solution. Allows you to add an additional layer of protection for the ‘High Availability’ and performance in all Mission Critial applications “turning” traffic through our Network.
Generally the solutions of load balancing that rely on DNS resolution for the geographical location are not always reliable and their behavior is unpredictable and susceptible to problems often caused by DNS cache. Using the Load Balancer service is not based on the DNS Global Load Balancer Engine Networks and customers can take full control of their uptime.
The Global Load Balancer service provides continuity of mission critical applications and supports Disaster Recovery, even in the event of unavailability, entire datacenter traffic is redirected from our Global Load Balancer to another data center without interruption to users.
With the Global Load Balancer service You can:
Need more information? Contact one of our Solution Specialist.
Automated control and data center management is a complex engineering, combining many technological and low-power subsystems into a single system, to further the optimal management and comprehensive monitoring of the technical state of the data center facility. The monitoring system is a vital component of any data center uptime.
Externally data center monitoring system is presented with a graphical display image of data center, its interface is very easy to work: you can always see information about what happens on the court fast enough, it is not overloaded with unnecessary features and options. Based on the testimony of one can conclude the work of all life support systems of data center.
Example, you can track the performance of air-conditioning system: press on the remote control icon of conditioner, which is included (the display is visible inscription: K6 (AC 6) included). The display shows the temperature of the air entering the air conditioning, the temperature of the cooled air outlet, filter status, fan, and two compressors – working and disabled. By off the air conditioner (K3 – off.) Can say the same thing, only temperature sensor works.
Then, we can in the same way check the temperature in the data center. At certain points of the hall hang temperature sensors, they are placed on a wire over the hot and cold aisles. With the monitoring device can be deduced statistics set time period within which to track the temperature change, etc. You can also configure and maximum temperature (in this case 30 degrees) in the hall. If you exceed the specified value triggers a warning system that sends alarm messages to the email addresses of technical services, as well as SMS-message to advance to the system prescribed DPC staff phones. The humidity level can be viewed in the same way (in our example, the temperature in the hot aisle 25 ? C, humidity – 39.3%).
Similarly connected to the monitoring of the UPS – uninterruptible power supply: we click on the icon “UPS-1” on the main screen of the system – the display shows the value of the load phases Percentage voltage phases, the battery voltage, charge, itd . UPS running in parallel, so all the information in the normal mode, in this case, will be identical.
Icon “Pm” – is the main switchboard of the data center. Here we can see diagram data center. See the status of their work: the state “DSU” – is fully prepared (glows green). Both power input glow green, so we can conclude that they are working properly. If, for example, there is a trip of one of the inputs, the input status icon turns red triggered ABP. If the power is automatically turned on both inputs powered by DGS, which at the time of the accident and shall supply all equipment and systems data center.
Now look testimony diesel: condition – off mode – auto, no additional data is now no other indicators that are activated only after the DSU. You can view the battery voltage, oil pressure, coolant temperature, etc. To avoid problems with the launch of AIS in the winter, you must have winter fuel and maintenance plus temperature inside the container.
Positive temperature in the container will easily start the engine even in the most severe frosts.
The monitoring system is deployed in the data center of any volumes. Increasing the size of the data center entails an increase of control points for monitoring, which complicates the perception of information and technical staff requires more fine-tuning notifications about events in the data center.
The following list of tips for administrators of data centers suggests a number of reasons for the creation and implementation of the strategy of maintenance of the data center.
Carefully defines the objectives of the program maintenance. best way to determine the success of the strategy is to know the goals that must be achieved. There are several potential targets, including reduced unplanned downtime, increased safety, improved mean time between failure, etc.
Of course, this can easily be overdone, but usually insufficient paperwork can create more problems than too scrupulous documentation. With access to the ready information on procedures, history and maintenance data, metric indicators and other information, you must be sure that maintenance is carried out regularly and in accordance with established protocols. And in the case of unexpected downtime, recording information to determine what may or may not cause problems.
Provide Regular Maintenance Schedule:
Though not all maintenance procedures should be carried out on a regular basis, many of them have to be repeated frequently. In these cases, verify that the procedures are actually performed. Schedule can be helpful, but only if you stick with it. Despite the seeming obviousness of this claim, be sure to perform regular maintenance procedures regularly.
Administrators of data centers do not have to implement the strategy service without assistance. Ask for help when you need it, and accept the offer of the team. Administrators should work closely with support services infrastructure and applications. They may have information about the load and performance, which can have a direct impact on the maintenance of the data center. And sometimes, some maintenance tasks are best performed by third parties who have expertise in certain areas, and that is not a domestic staff. For example, you grow zinc crystals on the raised floor. If you do not have the experience and equipment necessary to solve this problem, you can make the situation worse by trying to clean tile floor yourself.
Load The Funds For Maintenance Of The Data Center In The Annual Budget:
Many companies have a reduced budget for the maintenance and operation of the data center. Administrators of data centers have to explain leadership, if necessary, the importance of regular maintenance, and the need to make it as a part of the budget. Also, it should inform the administration about the benefits of service. If management is aware of the usefulness of the service, it will be more willing to allocate funds for this purpose.
Create An Inventory Of Equipment And Keep Records Up-To-Date:
You cannot perform maintenance, not knowing what equipment you have. Identify all of the equipment in data center, as well as its period of operation, producers, location, condition, etc. Inventory can be useful even for maintenance, so think about creating it and do not forget to update it. It is better to use specialized software to maintain an inventory of equipment to date.
In some cases, the procedure or service may be given priority over other types of work, in other cases, the service application can be postponed.
Appoint Persons Responsible For Maintenance Tasks:
Not every maintenance task can be performed by all members of staff. Some members of staff may be more qualified than others to perform specific tasks. Therefore, before starting maintenance, should appoint a person who may or must perform this task, whether internal staff or third-party service company. Also, should determine the composition of the equipment, the necessary training and safety procedures.
Put Safety First:
Electricity is everywhere in the data center, and many other hazards to life and health of persons. Ensure familiarization of the data center staff with safety when performing maintenance tasks.
Setting The Standards Of Cleanliness:
Sure, it may seem that the data center works pretty well, even if the trash is lying between the corridors, but there may be an invisible problem. In addition to creating the atmosphere, the lack of cleanliness can obstruct air flow, creating hot spots and danger. Sterile cleanliness may not be required in the data center, but the pile of furniture in the data center is strictly prohibited.
Do not be afraid to entrust the maintenance of third-party organizations. Although it is already indirectly mentioned above, one should not expect that all maintenance tasks can be performed by internal staff. You can save a little money, to entrust the work to a credible employee instead of using a third party, but the long-term costs associated with this approach can, in some cases, exceed the short-term costs to attract a third party to perform the task.
Check the specifications. While this is not always the case, the manufacturer often quite knows how to handle the equipment and how to service it. However, regardless of this, warranty may become void if you fail to comply with the manufacturer maintenance procedures and operations. So, check with the manufacturer’s recommendations and incorporate them into your maintenance plan.