GIS technology is very important in planning and effective decision making in the urban planning and the developments. In different urban applications as road network management and monitoring, health and sanitation problems, analysis of per capita, Industrial area planning, Improvements of parks, mass education and monitoring of the literacy rate and drainage systems and many plans and developments can be done by use of GIS techniques. Planning, monitoring, action plans implementation and assessing impacts such a tasks done with the help of GIS techniques. And it’s valuable to decision makers.
For nation’s economic growth, necessity of well-developed urban planning sector. For proper functioning of urban development authority, must having access to information of road network, asset and property ownership, census data etc. From this, increases transparency and it is cost effective. Rapid growth of urban development is most challenging factor in front of urban development authority, so efficient planning and management is basic need for it. GIS proves effective tool for planning, monitoring, management, co-ordination and utilization of features of urban database. GIS is using by developed and developing countries for planning purpose.
GIS applications in urban development are vast:
Disease ecology is spatial and using GIS we can understand different diseases and health systematically. Prevalence of diseases, facilities that are available in order to take decisions on either creating infrastructure facilities or for taking immediate action to handle the situation, this are including in public health management. GIS techniques is important for visualization as well as analysis of epidemiological data also used for reveling trends, dependencies and inter relationships. GIS can acquire, store, manage geospatial data, and having capability to integrate data from different sources.
For convergence of multi-disease surveillance activities, GIS serves as common platform. It is vital tool in health management including database management, planning, identification of risks, location mapping. Georeferencing of epidemiological data facilitates to data management. Once Basic structure is ready, it can possible to convert surveillance system for other diseases also. Particular diseases, public health resources and health event mapping can be done in relation to surrounding environment and existing health and social infrastructure.
Using GIS thematic maps are generated which is useful for representation of intensity of disease or vector. Catchment area identification and location of suitable sites for new health facility can be search using GIS techniques. It provides linking capability of database to map so automatically any data updates reflect in the maps. Through internet maps are published dynamically and patient can possible to find out convenient health center. GIS is useful for linking of demographic, environmental, temporal factors with health issues for understanding causes for such health hazards.
Usefulness of GIS in public health:
Agriculture industry also using GIS techniques for increasing yields, managing resources, reduction of input cost and prediction of future outcomes, improve business practices and many more applications. Workflows and agriculture environment can possible to visualize by using GIS and it is important to those who are involved in it. GIS can be useful for examination of farm conditions and monitoring effects of farm management practices such as estimates of crop yield, soil amendment analysis, identification of erosion and remedies for it, farm input cost such as seed, fertilizers, fuels, labor and transportation. Also useful for submission of government program applications in short time span. In the field, scientific analysis of production data through mobile GIS can possible at the farm manager’s office.
GIS technology is useful for increase production, reduction of cost and effective management of the land. Profitability and success of agriculture depends on balancing inputs and outputs of the farm. Using satellite images and GIS can possible to collect visual evidence, in certain fraud conditions. And due to the actual location mapping, it can provide accurate results. Accurate locational data collection is important in strategic decision making. GIS precisely record and publish agriculture data for operating agriculture and funding schemes.
RS data provides early warning system, so can possible to improve information on crop conditions. Advance of GIS technology is valuable in management of large quantity of databases, traditional digital maps and data models. Benefits of GIS in many applications and it are very important to decision makers for strategic decision making.
GIS applications are endless, at the national and local level, Ex, agricultural planners use geospatial data for deciding best zone for certain plant, soil suitability, topography, and Size and location of biologically suitable areas can be determined by using rainfall data. The ultimate output includes transport, infrastructure, labor availability, overlays with land ownership and distance to market centers. GIS is useful in modeling, by using real world data for representing natural behavior and simulating the effect of particular processes.
GIS Applications in agriculture:
Climate change is major problem in recent years and it is a geographic problem. And we can solve it by providing geospatial solution. From many days, GIS technology is useful for environment understanding, in strategic decision making and climate change monitoring also important in predictions of disaster risks in forest and agriculture sectors. Worldwide scientists, researchers, different policymakers rely on scientific analysis of GIS data and its database management functionality. GIS professional’s with varied expertise, knowledge, and having experience of best practices for implementing this advanced technology to climate change monitoring, carbon management, in disaster management. This valuable technology is important for identification of current and future risks and vulnerabilities of climate change, and so it is helpful for design and implementation adaptation operations.
Skillful expertize is required for the climate change detection through GIS techniques. Different information, ex pests, plant genetic resources and crop production and then these data united with the environmental datasets, such as land cover, weather for measurement of their current distribution and potential future estimated distribution under various scenarios of climatic change. Many environmental analysts using this technology for understanding such climatic complex issues and offering some important solutions.
Understanding global scale earth system and for taking strategic decisions, GIS base framework is very useful.
GIS applications in a Climate change detection:
We conclude that GIS & RS is very valuable technology for climate change detection and forecasting future climate.
Worldwide GIS and data mapping application is used for crime fighting and for prevention, valuable tools are available in it. Crime analysis can be done by crime mapping. In recent years crime maps examine by geospatial data incorporation with statistical functionality of GIS. And from it one can better understand where and because of what reason crime is occurring. Crime mapping is useful for better decisions, strategy formulation, tactical analysis (geographic profiling and crime forecasting) and also useful in targeting resources.
Criminal activities happening around nation and world can possible to represent using remote sensing data such as aerial photographs and Satellite imageries. The additional functionality of satellite imageries and GIS in crime mapping is increasing speed and efficiency of crime analysis. Crime incidental pattern also can analyze by using crime maps.
Using crime mapping i.e. with the use of GIS and RS data, Analysts can possible to recognize hot spots along with different patterns & trends. In GIS different datasets, i.e. locations, banks, schools, census and demographic can possible to overlay to better understand the fundamental causes of crime and help law enforcement administrators to develop strategies and handle problems. Enforcement operations such as allocating polices for certain emergency conditions also can possible through use of GIS technology.
GIS & RS techniques employ by police force in variety of applications, containing crime analysis. Criminal intelligence, public information and crime prevention, community policing tasks can done with GIS help. With georefrenced crime database, filtering when it is required and mapping of it over street data by representing crime data spatially. Different data layers is useful for information purpose ex. Zip codes, districts, census tracts, but city streets is important data.
Many applications can be implemented by using GIS & RS data. Geocoded information superimposed on Photos, including drug-market data, injury locations census data, liquor license locations, addresses, housing and zoning code violations and other data and it is significant to the needs of community policing.
Applications of GIS in Crime:
Last we can say, GIS technology is beneficial in Crime mapping