Disease ecology is spatial and using GIS we can understand different diseases and health systematically. Prevalence of diseases, facilities that are available in order to take decisions on either creating infrastructure facilities or for taking immediate action to handle the situation, this are including in public health management. GIS techniques is important for visualization as well as analysis of epidemiological data also used for reveling trends, dependencies and inter relationships. GIS can acquire, store, manage geospatial data, and having capability to integrate data from different sources.

For convergence of multi-disease surveillance activities, GIS serves as common platform. It is vital tool in health management including database management, planning, identification of risks, location mapping. Georeferencing of epidemiological data facilitates to data management. Once Basic structure is ready, it can possible to convert surveillance system for other diseases also. Particular diseases, public health resources and health event mapping can be done in relation to surrounding environment and existing health and social infrastructure.

Using GIS thematic maps are generated which is useful for representation of intensity of disease or vector. Catchment area identification and location of suitable sites for new health facility can be search using GIS techniques. It provides linking capability of database to map so automatically any data updates reflect in the maps. Through internet maps are published dynamically and patient can possible to find out convenient health center. GIS is useful for linking of demographic, environmental, temporal factors with health issues for understanding causes for such health hazards.

Usefulness of GIS in public health:

  • Determination of geographic distribution of diseases.
  • Analyzing spatial and temporal trends
  • Mapping of the population at the risk
  • Stratifying risk factors
  • Assessing resource allocation
  • Planning and targeting interventions
  • Monitoring diseases and its interventions over time
  • Health outcomes and it’s accessibility can be test by using GIS
  • Health service and its performance can be easily evaluated through maps
  • Health area is remain constant, improved or deteriorated can best analyzed by time series maps
  • Important in finding best location for health facility for optimizing resources
  • Integrating certain disease data and using statistical modeling in GIS can possible to identify intensity of risk of that disease.
  • GIS is important in analysis of facility survey
  • Analysis of healthcare gaps
  • Through GIS service network can find out.
  • Useful in data integration
  • Useful for supply/demand evaluation
  • Assessment of risks of particular diseases
  •  Useful in manpower tracking
  • Analysis of finance and budget
  • Monitoring of disease outbreaks
  • Tracking of the ambulances in emergency conditions


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