Data Center Processing is a complex engineering structure, intended for centralized deployment and maintenance of data center equipment.
There are many external factors that are affecting the quality of resources. Especially important and noteworthy is the negative impact of the environment and the human factor. To avoid this problem, the wide range of high-tech engineering solutions are used.
With Various solutions and methods of designing and building data centers, each in its own way is correct and usually corresponds to the norms and rules adopted in the construction and telecommunications. In this article I want to share the operation of data centers which includes power supply, cooling system and security.
Uninterruptible Power Supply
Data Center is one of the energy-intensive industries. Modern equipment, mounted in a 19 – inch rack unit height of 42, can consume up to 3 – 4 kW of electricity and provide a lot of heat. For its removal, you have to install air-conditioning, which consumes up to 50% of all power. As a result, equipment in data centers typically consume more kilowatts of electricity per square meter.
Power supply systems should be organized in two geographically separated transformer substations. Cable lines should route independently, each must be connected to “their” transformer. You will have to use automatic selection (ATS), exercising choice and switching between the main and backup lines.
Despite the existence of redundant power, it is desirable to use diesel generator power plant. In the scheme of power they are after you. That is, in case of a complete power outage or its non required parameters (voltage, frequency, and “purity”) is run automatically Data Encryption Standard, and the load is transferred to them.
DES, as a rule, it have a supply of fuel for up to 8 hours of continuous work and fills without stopping. Diesel Power Module can continuously work up to 3 – 4 months, subject to an established supply of fuel.
Next, install an uninterrupted power supply. It is absolutely necessary equipment, as the most dangerous power surges are short, lasting 2-3s. There are such negative factors, causing significant damage, as the excess voltage, frequency variation, grounding violation, the interphase potential, etc. UPS is operating in the mode of on-line, is an ideal Isolated, consuming “dirty” power from the city or DES, and issuing an absolutely clean power, the frequency of 50 Hz, 220 – 380 watts, without extra harmonics.
Creating such a serious electrical power supply system, data center requires a thorough approach. Design and construction perform specialized design and installation in organization, operation is carried out in accordance with the rules and regulations of its own engineering service company that owns the data center.
The task of cooling is maintained within the data center operating temperature range from 19 to 24 ° C and humidity from 40 to 80%. Typically, data centers of medium size (area 100 – 200 square meters. M) use cabinet-Precision freon air conditioners, air takes heat from the top room and force cold air under the raised floor. Calculation of power system cooling is a factor 1, ie, 1 kW power equipment is require 1 kW refrigeration. Reservation system is carried out by the scheme N +1. What does this mean? When we require refrigeration system cooling total of 100 kW and are available in cabinet driers freon air conditioners to 25 kW cold, you should install 5 cases: 4 main producing 100 kW, and a backup in case of failure of one of them.
Experience shows that this is a very effective method, especially if all five boxes are connected into a single management system. In this case, the software rotates the role of spare cabinet, which allows more efficient cooling system to expend resources in general. If the total heat generation data center equipment exceeds 150 – 200 kW, and is expected to further increase capacity step by step, it is advisable to install liquid coolant.
Use the following scheme. The street is established powerful chiller, the cooling water-based coolant to 16 ° C. Coolant circulates through the pipe by placing the data center, where a cabinet-type air-conditioners are circulating air. Heated agent returns to the chiller for cooling, the circle closes. Capacities are based chillers might be restricted to financial capacity.
19-inch cabinet, totally filled with modern server equipment, capable to provide up to 20 kW of heat. It should be remembered that due to structural and physical features, the usual way is almost impossible to remove more than 5 kW of heat, ie, blowing cold air from under the raised floor.
To resolve this problem, there are several approaches, in particular, the organization of “hot” and “cold” corridors. Under the corridor means a passage between rows of cabinets. In the “hot” corridor sent fans, blow-hot air from the servers, but from the “cold” to take the cold air blown out from under the raised floor through the lattice. This scheme allows to significantly raise the efficiency of refrigeration.
Also required to organize a flow of fresh air from outside. The fact that the air is constantly circulating through the computer cabinets and air conditioners, “fade” and requires updating. Influx through a custom install, heating and desiccating air of the street. In addition, it creates extra pressure inside the data center, which prevents penetration of dust.
For humidification steam generators are used. Dry air is not very effective for cooling systems because of the physical principles of air conditioning. With decreasing humidity of the electrostatic potential increases, which may cause equipment failure. Cooling system – a complex and delicate mechanism. As practice shows, this is the most critical and unreliable component of a complex data center. If it stop at 30 minutes, it can lead to heat rooms up to 60 – 70 ‘C, which entails the failure of equipment.
Raised floor is a necessary component of the data center. Under a pressurized cold air under it are power cables and low-power infrastructure. Typically, a raised floor is made of MDF tiles with a metal base with laminated cover, size 600 x 600 mm. Height above floor level – from 100 to 800 mm, for the most optimal data center 350 – 500 mm.
Early Detection Of Fire and Gas Fire
Maximum system efficiency gas fire should work in an earlier stage of development of fire detection, ie, when there is a corruption of heating elements or the initial inflammation, and in less than one minute extinguish the heat (and) fire. The complex is warning about fire and fire fighting should inform about the potential for ignition much earlier than would have to use extinguishing system.
This is achieved by installing a large number of high-sensitivity smoke, optical, chemical, spectral and other fire alarms tied into a single intelligent fire alarm and suppression, as well as the complex institutional arrangements. It includes the constant visual inspection of equipment, compliance with fire regulations, and rules of operation of electrical installations. Very effective is the system of super-early fire warning VESDA (Very Early Smoke Detection Aspirator), which allows you to detect a potential source of fire, long before its occurrence.
There are many types of fire extinguisher for automatic fire extinguishing systems, suitable for extinguishing fires in data centers. These include a variety of gases – halons, inert, carbon dioxide. It also use fine-dispersed water and powders. In this case, there is a principle – the more expensive solution, the more will remain in good serviceable after activation of the fire. The most expensive, but the most loyal to the equipment, are extinguishing mixtures based on Freon or inert gases.
CCTV and differentiation of physical access – the most important attributes of a modern data center.
The most effective is the system of access control based on proximity-cards. It consists of a server management, system controllers and readers, as well as maps (keys). This solution is inexpensive but effective measure of protection. In conjunction with CCTV, it is able to provide a reasonable level of security for data center.
Each door is equipped with a installed card reader, lock and a video camera. At an official request employees and customers are issued by a private key, which is the entry ticket to the territory of the physical perimeter of the data center. Typical attributes of key-picture of the owner, his personal details and the name of the company where he works. The key is always a staff member and provides easy access to the necessary facilities. Their list allow the access time prescribed in management of dedicated servers at institution account and linking it to a particular key.
Along with the system of separation of physical access, video surveillance system is a mandatory part of the organizational and technical measures of data center. It consists of an N-th number of video cameras installed so as to monitor virtually all the technical premises, entrances, exits, passages and hidden squares data center becomes easier. The video image comes to security monitors and and they are archived on digital media which creates another “virtual” level of security for data center services.
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