India is vulnerable to natural and manmade disasters. All disasters are spatial in nature. GIS techniques act as a decision support tool. Decision making can possible by analysis of different GIS layers. Currently socio-economic and geo-spatial data is useful for management and planning of disasters as well as tackling of disastrous condition. Various departments and agencies who are stakeholders using GIS in the disaster management process. GIS, RS & GPS is useful in disaster management applications & for decision making. Evolution of computer technology and availability of hardware is helpful for rapid expansion of GIS in both disaster research and practice.
GIS is useful for hazard zone mapping and during emergency conditions mitigation of people can easily possible using this maps. GIS and RS much beneficial in mitigation strategies and preparedness plans. Real time geographic data can improve the allocation of resources for response. GIS technologies is much useful in modeling of disaster risks and human adaptations to hazards. It is also provides decision support system in disaster management.
Disaster Management System:
- Mitigation: Emergency is the discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks. It is a discipline that involves, steps taken to contain or reduce the effects of an anticipated or already occurred disastrous event.
- Preparedness: It is how we change behavior to limit the impact of disaster events on people.
- Response: An effective plan for public health and other personnel during a disaster would outline activities designed to minimize the effects of the catastrophe. These efforts can be summarized as closely situation analysis and response.
- Disaster Recovery: The aim of the recovery phase is to restore the affected area to its previous state. Recovery efforts are concerned with issues and decisions that must be made after immediate needs are addressed.
Disaster Management is done by following steps:
- Planning and Analysis
- Situational Awareness
- Data Management
- Field Operations
Planning and Analysis:
GIS is the most complete information system for modeling, analyzing spatial data and displaying community vulnerability. When we identify hazard locations with critical infrastructure. Processed GIS Models can be useful for determination of event impact and necessary mitigation requirement. Preparedness is important when disastrous event occurs. On analysis of risk and hazards is beneficial in Emergency management program
Disaster and emergency management in situational awareness is essential thing. GIS techniques plays vital role to provide locational information of the event, that is, where is the event happened and what happening exactly in real time. Also by linking people, processes spatial information situational awareness established. GIS map interface important in handling emergency condition.
To achievement of preparedness, gathering of information and its advance data storing is important. In GIS, integration of information from other sources is possible. GIS solution is a standards-based. Accurate cataloging of GIS data provide useful information during emergency conditions.
Field data is very important in GIS applications and Mobile GIS provides crucial information. Field teams captures information and sent back to user. So ground information useful for recognizing actual event conditions. Then new data can be sent to operation teams in field (where disaster occur), so they have the information possible for protecting lives and providing safety to people. Whether its response or recovery phase, Mobile GIS provides right information
Important objectives of GIS database generation are,
Disaster managers from different state, city, village level using GIS database for disaster planning.
- Preparedness and planning of disasters
- Forecasting and early warning of disastrous event
- For relief management, rescue operations
GIS database with various themes is helpful to disaster managers in decision making process when catastrophic event occur.
GIS database include following information which is beneficial in disaster management.
- Use of different satellite imageries (Remote Sensing data) ex. Quickbird, SPOT, IKONOS for GIS data creation.
- Preparation of base map of different themes using satellite imageries.
- Thematic maps such as hydro geomorphologic map, slope map, terrain map, and DEM generation in GIS. It is used for disaster planning.
- Macro and micro level maps used for identifying vulnerability and threat condition
- Identification of safe locations and zones for rehabilitation
- Road and location maps used for finding alternate routes, shelters and locations
- Planning of evacuation and operation
- Management of Rehabilitation and post-disaster reconstruction.
- Suitable locations identifying scientifically for construction of houses and shelters
- No construction areas identified and rehabilitation of existing people can be done.
- Hospitals and medical facilities identification for injured people.
GIS solutions for different hazards:
- GIS can be useful for monitoring historical sites of earthquake also to Response & data management for recovery.
- It’s also useful for Impact assessment.
- Flood mapping from Macro level to Micro level.
- Flood Zone mapping.
- Detecting Potential Site of Flood in reference with rainfall
- Elevation Mapping
- Preparing Response map in response to manage after flood situations