What are Data Centers ?
Data Centers are a form of value-added service that offers resources for processing and storing data on a large scale for organizations of any size and even professionals may have at hand a structure of great power and flexibility, high security, and also qualified in terms of hardware and software to process and store information.
Currently we can define two main categories of data centers:
A. Private Data Center (PDC)
B. Internet Data Center (DC)
A Private Data Center (PDC) is owned and operated by private corporations, institutions or government agencies with the primary purpose of storing data resulting from processing operations, procedure and also in applications related to the Internet. Furthermore, an Internet Data Center (DC) is usually owned and operated by a provider of telecommunications services by operators of commercial telephony or other types of providers of telecommunications services. Its main objective is to provide various types of connection services, web hosting and equipment users. Services can range from long distance communications, Internet access, content storage, etc.
Co-location Services: The client hires the racks of physical space and infrastructure for energy and telecommunication, but the servers, systems, management, monitoring and technical support are provided by the client. This relationship can be relaxed and it is customary to establish a contract with the terms and conditions, clearly defining the scope of services of each side. Telecommunications equipment includes.
Benefits For Your Company:
• Speed of service;
• Expert advice.
Basic data center service is included in a colocation package of basic services for the operation of equipment at no extra cost and maintaining the standard throughout the Data Center.
The Data Center Services Offered Are:
• Proactive monitoring and notification;
• DNS server (Domain Name Server) primary and secondary education;
• Technical support 24 x 7 x 365;
• Security building;
• Service reset (on / off equipment);
• Monitoring network;
• Redundant infrastructure;
• Hall of incubation (unpacking and setting)
Additional Data Center Services:
Hiring server colocation, customers receive a range of services. But it can also implement your purchase with options that will provide it with the most comprehensive range of services that a company can receive in colocation.
The client will have:
• Provision of access and bandwidth for Internet connection and the external network;
• Room for shared customers;
• cafe customers exclusive;
• IP addressing.
This service is dedicated to businesses that need high-quality infrastructure, connectivity between offices and / or the internet. This data center service is sold in square meters, cages (cages) or half rack and connections (IP, Internet, frame relay, ATM, etc.). From 64 Kbps.
Hosting offers a range of services suitable for companies wishing to leverage investment in hardware and software. Data center hosting service allows the customer to use the infrastructure of the data center and edge servers, and rely on highly qualified professionals who offer ongoing support to the customer.
The customer has the option of choosing equipment and software packages tailored according to the needs of business. Everything is custom designed and built to offer the best solution for each client. Thus, it guarantees the purchase of products that your company needs, allowing the client to fully dedicate the actions to focus on their core business.
The allocation of physical space in a rack and the amount available for equipment are calculated according to the defined configuration of servers and equipment hosting. All with the advantage of your company can set the bandwidth.
• Economics of investment in fixed assets;
• Servers of art;
• Constant updating of software / hardware;
• Know-how in technology;
• Speed of service;
• Reliability of services rendered;
• Installation of high standard.
Basic Services in The Data Center:
Using a hosting service, optimizes customer investments in hardware and software with exclusive use of the latest generation of dedicated hosted servers. Services that are essential for the functioning of the equipment are made available without additional cost and with high standards of our Data Center.
• Capacity planning and network server;
• IDS (Intrusion Detection);
• Proactive monitoring and notification;
• Availability of IP address;
• Issue report online;
• Server to relay e-mail;
• DNS server (Domain Name Server) primary and secondary education;
• Technical support 24 x 7 x 365,
• Help Desk;
• Security building;
• Service reset (on / off equipment);
• Ensuring maintenance of logical security of the operating system;
• Full operation of the server until the operating system level;
• Incremental backup.
• Additional space structure in SAN (Storage Area Network);
• Traffic Gbytes per additional months;
• Additional space on internal disk
• Additional memory;
• Raid 1 / 5, with the possibility of protection service to the internal hard drive through replication of data between disks;
• Accounts of additional e-mails;
One aspect that must be observed in hiring a service of Data Center, is the type of access (co-location) that the user will have from the server service provider. The type of access will be defined by which the server will be accessed if necessary.
If the co-location is hired, the access is done by employees of the data center service provider, locally. If the co-location is remote, access is done through remote control software that will be chosen by the user. In this case the application is installed on the remote access server by staff of the service provider. Eventually one or more tools may need maintenance or there may be a need to install new applications. In such cases, the user must request the service provider to arrange whatever is necessary for the operation. While hosting the server, the user signs a term stating the legality of all software installed on your server.
One can observe that through co-location (location of a server’s unique user, installed and operated in the structure of the provider), the user can benefit from a range of resources. A co-location provides high scalability, ie in case of a need for expansion of services or equipment, it can be done immediately, monitored 24 hours a day, 7 days a week (24X7), backup, optimization of costs operation and maintenance, network with high availability and load balancing.
1. Location of Data Center
The choice of location for deployment of the Data Center should be made taking into account the region, consistent with the Code of the City zoning, land size, easy access for delivery of equipment, high areas without flooding, existence of infrastructure basic sanitation, water, telephone and electricity.
Criteria For Site Selection of Data Center:
• Being close to points of presence to access networks of optical fiber enabling the connection of two different trunks.
• Availability of energy with the possibility of obtaining two power inputs
• Scalability, to allow increased building area over time.
2. Architecture of Data Center
The Main Components Of On Data Center Areas Are: Social Hall, And Meeting Rooms To Receive Visitors.
Administrative Area of Data Center:
• Operation, maintenance and storage of equipment.
• Living room equipment including servers for hosting and co-location and telecommunications room.
• cafe equipment segments electricity and air conditioning.
• Group Moto generator and fuel tank typically located in an area outside the Data Center.
The Goal Of Space Planning in Data Center Is:
• Have facilities with 60% of the total area devoted to the room of Data Center Equipment.
• Promote the “state of the art data center” premises since the operating system to the level of management of the database.
• Promote facility that reflects the image of a high-tech enterprise, business-risk high-yield investments, functionality and control.
Data Center is usually divided into three areas of physical security in increasing order of restriction of access:
Zone I: Public areas including the Lobby, the area for visitors and administrative areas.
Zone II: Areas of Data Center Operation.
Zone III: Equipment rooms, the heart of the Data Center, where the servers are located, the “shaft” of cables, power distribution units (PDUs), batteries and air conditioning machines.
3. Construction of Data Center
The construction should provide a solid structure composing secure facilities that complement and protect equipment and information residing in the Data Center.
Electricity: The Electrical segment consists of the Uninterrupted Power System (UPS), the Emergency Power System and Power Distribution Units (PDU).
The uninterrupted power system (UPS) has the function of providing energy for all data center equipment, including safety equipment and fire detection and alarm. It consists of sets of compounds by UPS batteries, rectifiers and inverters. These UPSs, redundant, connected in parallel, ensure a continuous supply of power even in case of failure of power transformers, power input or a set of UPS.
The banks of batteries are sized to feed the loads for a period of 15 minutes. This time is sufficient for starting and connection of diesel generators in case of power failure of the Concessionaire.
The power system consists of a group emergency diesel generator which will come into operation and connect to the electrical system of the Data Center automatically.
Generators are rated to withstand all the loads necessary for the operation of the Equipment Data Center during a power failure of the Concessionaire. The goal is to assist the operation 24 hours x 7 days a week, considering the conditions for preventive maintenance, adding new components and replacement operation after unplanned outages.
The power distribution units (PDU) are responsible for conditioning the signal to feed multiple devices at Data Center.
4. Air conditioning in Data Center
The segment of Air Conditioning has the function of maintaining a controlled temperature and humidity in the premises of Data Center. The segment includes the air conditioning system for cooling units and air handling system Distribution of Air Conditioning. It should be connected to emergency power generators.
The Cooling System to provide heating, cooling, humidification and de-humidification of the building.
The Air Treatment System must be separated into three types of area: Room Facilities: Data Center, area offices, equipment rooms Air Conditioning and Electrical. The separation is due to differences in sensible heat and latent heat of each area the conditions of temperature and humidity.
The Distribution System of Air Conditioning Equipment Room to the Data Center will use the system to supply air for the full set beneath the raised floor. This system involves inflating the raised floor at a minimum height of 60 cm., That depending on the amount of conduit, tubing, mats, etc., should have its height adjusted so as to allow air to circulate throughout the room Data Center. The goal is to operate 24 hours a day 7 days a week.
An adequate cooling is essential to maintaining performance and safety of operation of data center services.
A Data Center must ensure that the internal temperature in the areas of production varies by at most 1 ° C. For this, we have:
• Structures cooling N +1, ie for each equipment functioning, there is another reserve (ready to use);
• Modular refrigeration and air exchange;
• Scalability according to demand.
5. Fire Protection System in Data Center
The Data Center is a facility for electronics essentials such as servers and other types of computers and telecommunications equipment. In addition to meeting standards of the local fire department, the fire protection system should seek to avoid damage to the equipment in case of fire.
One of the best solutions for the firefighting equipment rooms is a combination of the Combat System with Pre Action Sprinkler (with dry pipe) above the raised floor system and Fire Fighting for Gas FM 200 below the raised floor.
The combat system with gas will be connected to a sensitive detection system and be the first to be fired. The gas is spread throughout the area, leaving no residue to damage sensitive equipment or to order a cleanup cost of the equipment.
The system of pre-action when triggered, triggers the discharge of water only in the sprinklers that have been operated by heat over the fire.
6. Supervision and Control System in Data Center
The control and supervision system continuously monitors the various segments of Data Center tracking items such as:
• Control of loading and parallelism of the generating sets
• Supervision and control of medium voltage panels
• Supervision and control panels for low-voltage
• Integration with system of generators
• Integration with system rectifiers
The system consists of computers with the latest technology capable of withstanding continuous use, appropriate systems for supervision and control. The same are redundant to each other, allowing high flexibility and performance system.
The Data Center also has a system of closed circuit television and access control that controls the entry and exit in various rooms and areas of physical security at Data Center.
7. Data Center Building Standards
Important factor of a Data Center, is to implement and maintain methods of standard implementations of structured cabling seeking possible expansions, certification and ensuring safety and maximum use of the network.
Regarding the standards used, we can highlight the norms created by EIA / TIA (Electronic Industries Association / Telecommunications Industry Association) or ISO / IEC (International Standards Organization / International Electro-technical Commission called ISO / IEC 11801, equivalent to the EIA / TIA reprinted by ISO 568A).
7.1: TIA / EIA TSB 67 Standards
Transmission Performance Specifications for Field Testing of UTP cabling Cat5 (UTP end-to-end Performance Testing System) aiming system of Telecommunications (Telecommunications System Bulletin – TSB) is directed to test specifications for post-installation performance, the specifications include characteristics of field testers, test methods and minimum transmission requirements for UTP cabling systems. It cites factors affecting performance as the characteristics of cable, connecting hardware, patch cords and the cross-connect as well as total number of connections and the quality of the installation. The TIA / EIA TSB-67 refers to two test configurations:
a) Setting up the basic test of link (Basic Link test configuration): The basic test of link is used to check the performance of the cable permanently installed.
This Test Includes The Following Components:
• Up to 90m maximum horizontal cabling: cable includes a telecommunications closet (TC) to a consolidation point and the optional consolidation point to the outlet (cabinet) telecommunications. From one extreme to another on a horizontal cable connection.
• Up to 2m coord (string) to test the main tester for field connection to the site.
• Up to 2m coord test the remote connection to the remote unit of the field tester.
There Are Four Test Parameters In Each Link:
• Mapping (Map Wire) – Consists of 8 confirms the continuity of drivers end-to-end. Indicating possible pairs of short (shorts Between pairs), crossed pairs (crossed pairs), pairs Reverse (reversed pairs) and pairs spliced (split pairs).
• Length (Length) – Method of measuring the length of the cable by electrical means.
• Attenuation (Attenuation) – Method used in measuring the signal loss in the primary channel or link.
• NEXT – Measuring the amount of signal interference issue in a couple others. It is tested on all the endpoints of the link (endpoints, local and remote).
b) Channel Configuration Test
The test channel is used to verify the performance of the channel entirely. The channel has the following components:
• Up to a maximum of 90m of horizontal cable including the cable between the TC and a consolidation point (optional) and the consolidation point to the outlet (cabinet) telecommunications.
• Coord (umbilical connection machine or equipment) from the desktop.
• Cross-connections in telecommunications closets being made through or patch cable mapping coord.
• The total length coords, patch cords and cables and mapping coords area.
7.2: TIA / EIA TSB 72 Standard
Guidelines Centralized Fiber Optic Cabling (Centralized Optical Fiber Cabling). The TSB-72 was created to help in planning a cabling system fiber-to-the-desk (FTTD) from 62.5/125mm, using centralized electronics unlike the traditional method of distribution of equipment to individual floors to extend the connections from the desktop for cross-connect implementation. Use an interconnection between the horizontal and backbone cabling allows for better flexibility, ease of management and can easily migrate to the cross-connection.
But you must have the maximum length of 90m in horizontal cabling. The distance from the horizontal cabling and backbone combined with the coords of the desktop, patch cords and equipment shall not exceed more than 300m.
The centralized cabling system shall be located within the same building working areas to be served. All displacement and change in activity should be performed at main cross-connect. Horizontal link should be added and removed in the TR. This must be a project of the cabling system enabling the migration to centralized mode pull-through, interconnect or amendment to an implementation of cross-connect. As a method to facilitate this migration, there must be within the scope of the project is having enough space in the TR allowing future growth and provision of additional patch panels and appropriate slacks that allow possible shifts in the cables of cable to the local cross-connect.
This slack can be stored without cables or fiber connectors. To fill the gap it has to prevent the maximum radius for curves in the cables are not violated thereby avoiding possible damage in optical fibers and others. The slack in cables can be stored indoor or on the walls of the telecommunications room, but should use boxes to protect slack optical fibers, due to their limitations and specifications.
With respect to the backbone, they are providing future horizontal links, this minimizes the need for placement of additional backbone cables. The fiber backbone must be capable of supporting current and future networking technologies, and require two fibers for each connection on the desktop.
The standard is required to use the following rules for labeling ANSI/TIA/EIA-606 cabling system centralized ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A to ensure proper polarity of the fiber and connector specifications and methods of implementing connectorization guidance to the desktop AB and BA direction in the central cross-connect.
7.3: TIA / EIA TSB 75 Standard
Additional Horizontal Cabling Practices for Zones (Additional Horizontal Cabling Practices for Open Offices) methodology to meet modular office environments increasing flexibility and reducing costs are discriminated as follows:
1. Horizontal Cabling reference to Open Offices (Horizontal Cabling for Open Offices). A termination point horizontal (telecommunications room multi-use) and a point of interconnection or horizontal intermediate (consolidation point) thus creating greater flexibility in open office layouts with modular furniture, where you have frequent changes. The telecommunications room multi-use (MUTO) and the consolidation point should be in a fully accessible, permanent location.
2. Cabinet Telecommunications Multi-Use (MUTO – Multi-User Telecommunications Outlet Assembly) The Cabinet telecommunications multi-use (MUTO) has the function to terminate point for horizontal cabling, consisting of multiple telecommunications closets on the same site. The modular coordinate extends from MUTO terminal equipment without additional intermediate connections. This configuration allows the moving of office plant without affecting the horizontal cabling, followed by the following criteria:
• Can not be installed on the ceiling.
• The maximum length of modular coords should be 20m.
• The modular coordinate MUTO connecting the terminal equipment must be labeled at both ends with a unique identifier.
Should be identified with the coordinate patch of greater length of the work area (modular cord). The length of this coordinate is calculated by formula:
C = (102 – H) / 1.2
W = C – 7 (The length of the cables, work areas may not exceed 20 m)
C = is the maximum combined length of cable that connects the user equipment to the telecommunications outlet, over the cable that connects the equipment in the telecommunications closet and cable that connects the patch panels;
W = is the length of the work area;
H = is the length of horizontal cable.
If you are already using fiber optic cables in data center, you can use any footage from the horizontal cables, desktop and cabinet telecommunication, keeping in mind that the total length should not exceed more than 100m. When the optic cabling is centralized, one should follow the guidance of the TIA / EIA TSB 72.
3. Consolidation Point : It is the point of interconnection within the horizontal cabling actually performs a direct connection (straight-through) intermediate between horizontal cabling and cross-connect based on the horizontal cabling that goes to one or the MUTO telecommunications room on the desktop. There should be no cross connections between the cables in data center and you should follow these guidelines:
• Ensure that the total distance of the channel in any way beyond a distance of 100 meters.
• Ensure the fixing of the cables without violating the specifications and characteristics of each material complies with the requirements of minimum radius of curvature.
• Ensure that the consolidation point is at least 15m away from the telecommunications room, avoiding the additional NEXT due to the resonance of the multiple connections link near the cupboard.
7.4: ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A Standard
Norm that characterizes the minimum specifications for structured cabling, classifying the components of the installation structure as follows:
1. Ease of entry (Entrance facility): Involves the ease of entry of cables, connecting hardware, protection devices and other equipment required for the building. The equipment inside the room can be used for connections to public or private networks.
2. Main cross-connect: The Hall of telecommunications equipment may have the same location of the main cross-connect. Cabling techniques that apply to telecommunications closets (TC) also apply to equipment rooms.
3. Backbone Distribution Interconnection between telecommunications closets, equipment rooms, and may be involved cables, cross-connects (main and intermediate) terminations, jumpers or patch coords for connections:
• There are guidelines to provide the maximum amount of life of at least 10 years to cables supported.
• Assume the distribution system of star topology and can be connected to a main cross-connect, intermediate or other main connection, but you must be careful not to have more than two tiered levels of main cross-connect.
• The recommended approach is to use one of the following features of connections among them, 100MHz UTP, STP-A DE 150MHz, Optical fiber cable 62.5/125 m, singlemode fiber optic cable or coaxial cable 50W (recognized but not recommended for new installations).
• To make the choice of cabling to be used, there must be criteria for selection of the media depending on their characteristics such as flexibility (considering the supported services), life size and the location and quantity to be used.
• The recommendation of maximum distance from the backbone is also a very important factor for the choice of cabling.
4. Horizontal cross-connect is the name that refers to telecommunications closets (Telecommunications closet functions) which is to hardware in the connection of all horizontal cabling, intermediate cross-connections or even the cable of the backbone .
The cross-connections and interconnections can be said of connections between horizontal and backbone cabling or equipment connecting integrated circuits (hardware).
5. Horizontal distribution is part of the cabling system that connects the wiring from the desktop to the horizontal cross-connect in the TR, the horizontal cabling can find outlets for telecommunications in the area of employment, terminations and patch coords and jumpers in the TR. The horizontal distribution also possesses some important factors such as:
• General design guidelines: It has a target to meet the current specifications, thus facilitating the maintenance and replacements also considering the possibility of future equipment installations and changes in service since the horizontal cabling is the least accessible and is the subject to most of the activity of an implementation.
• Topology: The horizontal distribution system must have the standard star topology where the points of desktop wiring must be connected in a horizontal cross-connect to the telecommunications room located on the same floor of the desktop.
• Distances: The system must meet the average distance of 90m corresponding to the total length of the cable (leaving the work area to the cross-connect in the TR) is allowed where it should not be more than 10m in length for each path of coord area of work, jumping and equipment, but should not exceed 3m in length for path coords and jumpers that are used to connect equipment or the horizontal cabling backbone.
• Media recognition of horizontal distribution: You can use the 4-pair UTP 100MHz cable, STP-A 150MHz 2-pair cable or fiber optic 62.5 / 125 m (two fibers) as there are types of cabling for horizontal distribution according to the recommendation of the standards, but there are some observations:
– Coaxial cable although recognized, is not recommended for new installations.
– Hybrid cables (multiple types of media wrapped on the same cable) can be used if each type of media meet with the requirements of transmission and color specifications for this cable is also necessary to make the distinction of UTP multipair.
• Criteria for selection of media: For the desktop, it will have to be equipped with at least two telecommunications closets and we could be associated with voice and other data for the first aims must be 4-pair UTP cable 100W category 3 or greater, and for the second 4-pair UTP 100MHz, Category 5, STP-A cable 2 pairs 150MHz or two fiber optic cable, 62.5 / 125 m •.
6. Work area are defined as components of the landscape of work, ranging from cabins or telecommunications closets using 4-pair UTP cable with up to 3m long coords. The desktop is just a reference to the standard since it is quite variable and usually are never permanent and changing.
7.5: ANSI/TIA/EIA-569-A Standard
A major network cabling standards focusing on the specifications of infrastructure, structured cabling, providing specifications and project management for all building facilities. Identifying six infrastructure components: ease of entry, equipment rooms, backbone routes, provision of telecommunications closets, horizontal routes and work areas.
1. Ease of Entry in Data Center(Entrance Facility): It is defined by ease of entry into building or backbone of telecommunications services, and may contain devices interface with public networks. Necessarily the place to be dry and close to the vertical backbone routes.
2.Equipment Room in the Data Center: room whose space is intended to centralized location of equipment common to the employees, their location and design must be considered for the possibility of an increase in equipment and in its accessibility.
3. General Design Considerations for Data Center: Cafe equipment tends to be a centralized space for housing telecommunications equipment (PBX’s, servers, routers, among others) of a building, being located near the route of the backbone. Its size has a minimum of 14m ², but to suit the characteristics of specific equipment, there is a need to make to make a project allowing a non-uniform occupation of the building, providing 0.07m in the equipment room space for every 10m usable floor space. If the equipment room is being designed to move, verify that the capacity of the floor will bear the weight of equipment to be installed and check for interference, vibration, altitude, HVAC equipment (dedicated equipment room), lighting, energy and fire prevention.
4. Inter-Building Pathways in Data Center: In a campus environment, routes, inter-building are needed among which it makes the connection of separate buildings. The lists of standard ANSI/TIA/EIA-569-A basement, ground, aerial and tunnel are the main types of routes used.
5. Underground Inter-Building Backbone Pathways in Data Center: An underground route is considered as a component of the ease of entry. For route planning, you should consider the limitations existing in the topology, ventilation to prevent accumulation of gas, vehicle traffic to determine the thickness of the layer covering the route and whether it should or should not be concrete, if groundwater constituted for conduits, it should have ducts and troughs, including manholes.
Cable Distribution System For Servers in Data Center
The power cords for the servers will be installed under the raised floor and arranged in layers or channels. Fiber and coaxial cables that interconnect the data room of routers and switches to the server room have redundant facility, with a circuit walking under the raised floor and another next to racks of servers. The panels for the distribution of data cables will be distributed throughout the server room.
The design of the cabling is done according to structured cabling standards. 1:10 Distribution System Via Cable to WAN.
Fiber Optic :
The composition of the optical fiber provides conditions for the propagation of light energy through your core, it spreads light by successive reflections.
Optical fibers have some advantages over some of the traditional physical media such as coax and twisted pair. For example:
• Low transmission loss: decrease the number of repeaters.
• High transmission capacity, increases the amount of information conveyed.
• Interference immunity and electrical isolation: the data is not corrupted during transmission.
• Security sign: the fiber does not radiate significantly propagated light, giving a high degree of safety information conveyed.
The modern fiber optic bandwidth has very large (x multi-gigahertz km) with low attenuation and low dispersion of the pulses emitted. For these systems, the fiber properties are those that comes with the lowest cost per km per channel that are installed.
The Use Of Optical Fiber Also Has Some Disadvantages Such As:
• Fragility of optical fibers without encapsulation
• Difficulty in fiber-optic connections
• T-type couplers with very large losses
• Lack of standardization of optical components
The transmission capacity (bandwidth) of an optical fiber depends on its length, its geometry and profile of its refractive indices. There are two main classes of fiber: single mode and multi mode fiber has several modes of propagation and in accordance with the profile of the variation of refractive indices of the shell with respect to the core, are classified into: step index and graded-index, the difference between them can be seen in the figure below. Its diameter is quite high, between 50 and 80 microns, making the beam undergoes reflection, limiting the signal range to about 2 Km Because of this multi mode optical fibers are used in local or campus.
Already the single-mode fiber has very small dimensions, and a transmission capacity than multimode fibers, the diameter of 10 microns, allows a propagating wave without reflection. The distance is significantly higher and the bandwidth available is almost unlimited. Singlemode fibers are used, especially in long distance networks, ie networks in metropolitan type Gigabit Ethernet, or type of SDH or DWDM backbones.
There are some characteristics of transmission in optical fibers that strongly influence the performance of fibers with a transmission medium, such as DWDM. In choosing the type of optical fiber for WDM systems in operation, must analyze factors such as attenuation, dispersion and nonlinear effects, because they are essential for good system performance.
Each type of fiber has some behavior for WDM operation which will result in restrictions for this type of operation. These restrictions have a direct impact on system performance, limiting the transmission capacity or decreasing the extent of linkages.
As the reader note: It is not easy to set up a Data Center nor it is Cheap!!!
If it is the dream of your life, Go Ahead!!!
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